Antibiotic medications - macrolides
The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient. Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle, as well as the length of time you have been taking the medication. Please consult your health care provider; he or she can best assess and address your individual health care needs, and determine if you are at risk for nutrient depletions from these medications, as well as others not listed here.
Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
Beaugerie L. [Diarrhea caused by antibiotic therapy]. Rev Prat. 1996;46(2):171-176.
Brismar B, Edlund C, Nord CE, et al. Comparative effects of clarithromycin and erythromycin on the normal intestinal microflora. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23(5):635-642.
Conly J, Stein K. Reduction of vitamin K2 concentrations in human liver associated with the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials. Clin Invest Med. 1994;17(6):531-539.
de Vrese M, Marteau PR. Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea. J Nutr. 2007;137(3 Suppl 2):803S-11S.
Edlund C, Beyer G, Hiemer-Bau M, et al. Comparative effects of moxifloxacin and clarithromycin on the normal intestinal microflora. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32(1):81-85.
Fitzgerald MA. Drug-induced vitamin B12 deficiency. Nurse Pract. 2007;32(9):6-7.
Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C, Bulpitt CJ. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):80.
Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997;6(Suppl 1):S43-45.
Hvas AM, Nexo E. Diagnosis and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency -- an update. Haematologica. 2006;91(11):1506-12.
Isakow W, Morrow LE, Kollef MH. Probiotics for preventing and treating nosocomial infections: review of current evidence and recommendations. Chest. 2007;132(1):286-94.
McFarland LV. Diarrhoea associated with antibiotic use. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):54-5.
Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Cattaruzza T, Scapicchio PL. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion: clinical evidence in a neurological population. Neurologist. 2004;10(6):338-43.
Pelton R, LaValle J, Hawkins EB, et al. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion Handbook. Hudson, OH:LexiComp, Inc.;2001:374-385.
Powers HJ. Current knowledge concerning optimum nutritional status of riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58(2):435-440.
Powers HJ. Riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(6):1352-60.
Reynolds E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and the nervous system. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(11):949-60.
Saavedra JM. Use of probiotics in pediatrics: rationale, mechanisms of action, and practical aspects. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(3):351-65.
Svenson J. Neurologic disease and vitamin B12 deficiency. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25(8):987.e3-4.
- Biaxin XL
Reducing the number of probiotic organisms, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, in the gastrointestinal tract may decrease the body's ability to resist infections and diseases. Symptoms of deficiency include gas, abdominal distress, diarrhea, and yeast infections.Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency may include cracks at the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the skin, growth retardation, and impaired wound healing.Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, birth defects, and colon cancer.Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Obvious symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are rare because it takes years to develop complications associated with long term depletion of this nutrient. Irritability, weakness, numbness, anemia, loss of appetite, headache, personality changes, and confusion are some of the signs and symptoms associated with vitamin B12 depletion. Low levels of this vitamin may also be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, heart disease, brain disorders, and birth defects.Vitamin H (Biotin)
Low levels of biotin are associated with changes in skin color, inflammation of the skin, hair loss, muscle pain, anemia, loss of appetite, depression, insomnia, and elevated levels of cholesterol.Vitamin K
The major symptom of vitamin K deficiency is an inability of the blood to clot properly, which may lead to excessive bleeding and a tendency to bruise easily.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. ©1997-2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
Sign Up for Free Newsletters
Ask Your Doctor the RIGHT Questions!
the most from your doctor visit.
Emailed right to you!
The Ask Your Doctor email series
may contain sponsored content.
18+, US residents only please.
Get the MOST from QualityHealth
- Top Searches
- 1. Arthritis Management: Nature Heals
- 2. 5 Digestive To-Dos
- 3. Men: Should You Shave It or Leave It?
- 4. Today's Top Fitness Trends
- 5. Sugar and Osteoarthritis : The Link
- 6. Can't Afford Your Hospital Bills?
- 7. Stay Energized All Day Long
- 8. Phobias: Who Has Them and Why?
- 9. What If Your EpiPen Fails?
- 10. 5 Costly Medical Billing Mistakes
- 1. Ice Falls Can Cause Serious Injuries
- 2. Can Inactivity Act Like a Disease?
- 3. Kale Snack Recipe for Diabetics
- 4. How Running Affects Arthritis
- 5. Sugar and Your Immunity System
- 6. Do Weight Loss Supplements Work?
- 7. 5 Super Foods for Spring
- 8. The Hazards of Reusable Bags
- 9. How to Avoid Ingrown Hairs
- 10. Health Tip: Constantly Change Shoes
- 1. 4 Common Treatments for Epilepsy
- 2. What Does a Urogynecologist Do?
- 3. GERD Without Heartburn? It's Possible
- 4. Graston Technique: Can It Work on You?
- 5. Music Therapy Can Help Autism
- 6. 8 Ways to Fight MS-Related Fatigue
- 7. Can You Still Bleed After Menopause?
- 8. Be Your Own Health Care Advocate
- 9. Why Is Syphillis on the Rise?
- 10. Ideal Weight vs. Happy Weight
The material on the QualityHealth Web site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a physician or other qualified health provider. See additional information.